The housing and Urban development Corporation has been asked help in the evaluation of suitable designs. In north Bihar, special cells are to be created in Darbhanga, madhubani, monghyr and other districts to coordinate work on strengthening of institute for the study of seismic phenomena in northeastern states is to be set up and the engineering departments of these states are. Municipal by laws for building construction for cities in zones iv and v are being suitably arnended to incorporate earthquake resistant construction features. A seismic code which is meant to outline the steps necessary in the event of earthquakes so as to minimise damage to life and property is to be drawn. The basic responsibility for undertaking relief and rescue operations is of the state government. In case of a severe disaster, the Union government provides financial and material support. The department of Agriculture and cooperation is the nodal department.
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A network of 56 seismographic stations has been set up in India and more are being planned under the resume jurisdiction or coordination of the India meteorological Department (IMD) which measures daily seismic activity parameters, namely, velocity of primary and secondary waves and micro-earthquakes over the. Apart from these parameters, various other ground parameters are also taken into account for prediction purposes like crustal deformation, change in seismic wave velocity due to stresses in rge decrease in magnetic susceptibility of rocks just before earthquakes and change in electrical resistivity of rocks. Sea level changes have been noticed prior to the occurrence of an earthquake and so has unusual behaviour of certain animals, particularly fishes and mammals. Dogs have been seen howling and chimpanzees have been seen to spend their nights on the ground rather than on trees a few days before the occurrence of an earthquake. The behaviour of these animals can probably be monitored for a rough estimate of the onset of an earthquake. These parameters are empirical and no constant factor has been found to predict accurately the occurrence of earthquakes. Although no definite research finding is available on the most suitable engineering structure of buildings situated in active seismic zones the government of India has issued guidelines regarding construction of buildings and other engineering structures for the states situated in seismic zones iv and. The salient points of these recommendations are that buildings and structures in earthquake zones should be strengthened and retrofitted against future earthquakes. For this purpose, appropriate technical guidance will be provided by the earthquake research Centre of the roorkee university and by the department of Agriculture and cooperation. Rural buildings and structural designs should be built al pr the existing rural housing scheme in Tnne.
The north and northeastern part including Sylhet, mymensingb and Rangpur towns are in Zone 1, which is the most active zone of the country. Dinajpur, bogrc, Dhaka, comilla and Chittagong Hill Tracts fall in Zone 2, where the shocks are moderate. Rajshahi, pabna faridpur, noakhali, chittagong and Co:Cs bazar, where minor shocks occur, are in Tnne. The southwestern part of Bangladesh, including Jessore, khura, barisal and Patuakhali, fall in Zone 4 where negligible shocks are observed. When earthquakes occur major disasters take place. Floods may occur due to collapse of dams and protective works on rivers, avalanches and landslides take place tidal waves on coastal belts can occur hazardous substances and gases can be released and essential universities services like water supply, electricity, sewage systems, communication lines, be disrupted. The major factor contributing to both economic and human loss is the collapse of buildings during earthquakes. Earthquake forecasting is a relatively complex task. It aims at forecasting location, time and magnitude of an impending earthquake.
The most recent earthquake which affected the country in August 1988 caused only minor crack on the tashigang dzong. In view of the fact that the past few earthquakes which hit the country had not been major ones and had caused only slight damages to structures, earthquake disaster management has not been a priority for the government. No infrastructure specifically charged with earthquake management has been set. Nevertheless, the government enforces strict building specifications which take into account the seismicity of the country. Bangladesh, particularly the northeastern region, has in the past experienced earthquakes of moderate to high intensity. The great earthquake of 189, which had its epicentre in the Shillong plateau of India caused widespread damage. Two other major earthquakes, the bengal earthquake of 1885 and Srimangal earthquake of 1918, caused severe damages in limited areas surrounding their epicentres. Bangladesh on the eastern flank of the himalayan foothills has been divided into four seismic zones.
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Observations suggest that large earthquakes occur about once in 50 years. There have been three major earthquakes in the last 55 years. The 1934 earthquake deforestation which affected Bihar and Nepal destroyed 3,400 lives in Kathmandu valley alone. In 1980, the area of Bajhang in western Nepal was struck by a powerful earthquake in which many people died, and considerable property was lost. On August 21,1984, an earthquake of magnitude.6 on the richter scale, with its epicentre at Udaipur in eastern Nepal, killed 7000 people and destroyed several thousand houses. The principal fault lines in the nepal Himalaya are the transverse main Central Thrust and the main boundary. Thrust however, aside from these there are many longitudinal faults which divide the himalaya into blocks from east to west.
The epicentre of major earthquakes are often located along these fault lines. Most of the earthquakes between 19ve been clustered in western Nepal. Bhutan in the northeastern part of the himalayan belt has a high seismicity rate. Earthquakes of magnitude 7.5 on the richter scale have been recorded in the country. Areas adjoining Bhutan have experienced earthquakes more than. The seismic zoning map prepared by the Indian Standards Institution does not cover Bhutan but from the study of the seismic zoning map of adjoining areas, the entire country can be taken to be within seismic zone v corresponding to the highest seismic zone. Bhutan, however has not been hit by any major earthquake in the past.
During the recent earthquake, malakand Agency and division, which are very close to the hindukush mountains, suffered heavy losses as compared to other parts of the country. India has also not escaped major earthquakes though accurate figures are not available about monetary loss caused by these earthquakes. India has been divided into five seismic zones according to the maximum intensity of earthquakes expected. Of these, zone v is seismically the most active, while zone i is the least active. Tnney comprises the whole of northeast India the northern portion of Bihar adjoining Nepal, west Uttar Pradesh hills, hinachal Pradesh around Mandi, rann of Kutch and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Tnney includes Himachal Pradesh Delhi, parts of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, sikkim and adjoining West Bengat a small portion near Calcutt4 Maharashtra near Kolma (south of Bombay and a part of Gujarat. Znnell comprises ls6eining portions of Punjab and a small part of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, madhya pradesh, Bihar and adjoining West Bengal, gujarat and Maharashtra and a small portion parallel to the west coast of peninsular India, a very small portion of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Tnne ii includes Tamil Nadu, parts of Karnataka, andhra Pradesh, parts of Maharashtra, rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, madhya pradesh, bihar, Orissa and West Bengal. Tnne i comprises parts of Karnataka. Andhra Pradesh, maharashtra, orissa, rajasthan, madhya pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Nepal lying on the southern slopes of the himalaya is subject to high seismic activity. A chronology of earthquakes. Of magnitudes six and above on the richter scale indicates that beween 18, 23 major earthquakes have occurred in Nepal. Earthquakes of lower intensity occur frequently especially during the rainy season.
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Seismic activity in the rainbow hazara range is between moderate to high and earthquakes here have caused offensive damage. The salt range has no known history of moderate or large earthquakes but, at low levels, the entire salt range is active especially along the long transverse pdf fault. The other regions of major seismic activity in pakistan are the mir-Karakoram region, the gardez, kumar and Safed Koh fault zones, the Chaman fault zone, the Ornach-Nal fault zone, the sulaitan range, the quetta transverse zone, the northern and southern Kirthar ranges, the coaptal region. According to the meteorological Upper Atmosphere research Station in Peshawar, 100 m earthquakes of low and high intensity occur every year in the hindukush area. The hindukush range is about 1,613 km miles long and about 323 km wide running northeast to southeast. The range through pakistan before entering Afghanistan and fragmenting into minor ranges. These ranges are the main source of earthquakes that jolt the nwfp and other parts of pakistan at regular intervals.
The recent 191 earthquake which ravaged the northern parts of the north West Frontier Province (nwfp) was less disastrous than the 1973 Besham earthquake which claimed 5,000lives in Kohistan district. Though the intensity of Besham earthquake was only.6 on the richter scale as compared.8 of the 199l earthquake, the damages and casualties was far less. The cause of large-scale destruction on 1973 was because the area of Besham is rocky and mountainous and because jolts are usually more intense in mountainous regions as compared to resume the plains. Ln 1973, many villages and houses in Besham were ranged to the ground as big rocks rolled down from the nearby mountains and landslides destroyed the villages. Approximately 10,000 earthquakes have been accurately recorded within a 400 sq k- by 500 sq km area in northern pakistan. The data collected by water and Power development Authority and pakistan Atomic Energy commission include earthquakes of magnitudes 6. They reflect the high seismicity of the region which includes the north western of the Indian plate, the salt range, potwar plateau hazara range, peshawar basin and the lower and higher ranges of Indus Kohistan.
is about Debal city that was destroyed in an earthquake in 893. Sayuti in Tehrikh-e-khulfa has given complete details of the calamity. Another tremor which caused extensive fuanges in the land surface took place in the rann of Kutch in 1819. During, not less than seven shocks of low intensity were recorded in the karachi region. In 1931, parts of Baluchistan and Sindh experienced a shock of the magnitude.3 on the richter scale which lasted for about 30 seconds. The makran earthquake of 1945 also caused widespread damage. During I955-1970, shocks of varied intensity were recorded in different parts of the pakistan.
Some of these have also been found in paper the saarc region. Earthquakes are responsible for the loss of about 50,000 lives every year in the world. Loss of property in a single earthquake is some times enough to upset a whole national economy. The intensity of an earthquake is measured on a 10 point scale originally defined by richter in 1958. Earthquakes over.5 are progressively damaging to property and human life. Pakistan occasionally falls victim to earthquakes. Quetta city was completely destroyed by an earthquake in 1935 and 30,000 persons were killed.
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The Indian subcontinent situated on the boundaries of two continental plates is very prone to earthquakes. All five saarc nations India, pakistan, nepal, Bhutan, bangladesh who have the himalayan range as their boundary or are in close proximity to it, have a long history of seismic tremors. In Maldives and Srilanka there is no record of any disastrous earthquakes though some incidents of seismic activity have been noted in the records dom of the formers National Centre for Historical and Linguistic Research. However, these two countries are generally considered earthquake free. Massive earthquakes generally occur near the junction of two crustal plates. For example along the himalayan range where the Indian plate goes below the eurasian plate. This is the commonest form of earthquakes known as tectonic earthquakes. The other forms being volcanic earthquakes, impact earthquakes (due to the impact of meteorites reservoir induced earthquakes and collapse earthquakes.